Forests range from natural old-growth beech forests with trees older than 100 years over mixed forests to intensely managed spruce monocultures. Special forest types include remains of park-like forests with many solitary trees created by century-long grazing and naturally mixed, mainly deciduous forests on steep slopes in small canyons. Forests in the study area are either state forests or communal forest.

Land use gradient:

1. Spruce, young timber

2. Spruce, old timber

3. Beech thicket

4. Beech, pole wood

5. Beech, young/old timber single-layered

6. Beech, young/old timber multiple-layered

7. Beech-mixed, thicket/pole wood

8. Beech-mixed, young/old timber

9. Beech, uneven aged, unmanaged forest



Grasslands range from unfertilised pastures mainly grazed by sheep over unfertilised or moderately fertilized meadows to fertilized intensely used grassland. Grasslands are farmed by private, single persons or part-time farmers (14 % of grid plots), by full-time farmers or by a state-owned stud farm “Haupt- und Landesgestüt Marbach”. Livestock includes mostly cattle, horses and sheep. Grass cuttings are mainly used as animal food.

Land use gradient:

1. Meadows, fertilised

2. Meadows, unfertilised

3. Mown Pastures, fertilised

4. Pastures, fertilised

5. Pastures, unfertilised