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Compared to the predecessor projects FunWood I-II, which largely focused on the influence of forest management on microbial diversity in existing deadwood in decomposition under field conditions, our focus now shifts to an experimental platform. The BELongDead experiment was initiated in 2008 under the leadership of Prof. Dr. E.D. Schulze (MPI Biogeochemistry Jena) with the aim of investigating the influence of the surrounding habitat on deadwood and its decomposition processes. Another focus is on the long-term observation of the colonisation of deadwood logs by a wide variety of organisms.

It will be investigated to what extent I) the surrounding ecosystem influences deadwood decomposition, II) how deadwood colonisation occurs and III) how microorganisms control deadwood decomposition and thus influence ecosystem processes such as nutrient turnover. BELongDead allows us to study the influence of land use in the form of forest management on a standardised set of deadwood (12+1 different tree species of the same size and decomposition onset), evenly distributed in 3 replicates in the 3 exploratories and in 3×3 differently managed plots each.

The aim of our project is to combine state-of-the-art molecular biological methods with classical fruiting body mapping and spore collections to I) determine the type and quantity of wood decomposition and different forest management aspects, II) observe and study distribution and succession patterns of fungi over time, III) determine fungal activity at the transcriptome and enzyme levels and interweave these results with process data, IV) determine resulting changes in wood chemistry, V) determine the influence of N-fixing bacteria on fungal diversity, and vi) ultimately identify key species in these complex processes.

Picture: The diagram shows how different degrees of forest management change the species pool.
Diagram of workflow: varying degrees of forest management change the species pool, e.g. mycelia present in the stems, sporocarps on the stems and spores in the air. Assembly processes lead to different patterns of co-occurrence and diversity of species in/on the stems, which in turn affects the metabolic process of wood decomposition and ultimately changes the quality and quantity of deadwood as well as the overall structure of the forest. As wood decomposition progresses, the C:N ratio becomes more and more unfavourable, so nitrogen has to come from somewhere, e.g. from bacteria that are also present in the stems. This is again related to the patterns of co-occurrence, diversity and processes

1. increased forest management intensity reduces the species pool of wood-inhabiting fungi at landscape and forest stand level.

2. intensive forest management is a habitat filter that favours certain species with certain life strategies (e.g. generalists).

3. forest management relaxes competitive interactions between wood-dwelling fungi, leading to higher wood decomposition rates.

4. wood decomposition processes are highly predictable from fruiting body dating combined with molecular data on phylogenetic and functional diversity.

5. there is consistent microbial N-fixation in deadwood, and certain bacteria occur non-randomly with certain fungi.

6. among the typical peroxidases expressed by fungi (Class II peroxidases, hem-thiolate peroxidases), we expect manganese peroxidases to be the most diverse and abundant of all lignin-modifying enzymes.

7. peroxidase transcriptome diversity increases with greater diversity of white rot fungi.


To answer our questions, we use state-of-the-art molecular biological techniques on DNA and RNA level, including so-called “Next Generation Sequencing” techniques (NGS). Furthermore, we want to prove the actual N-fixation in the wood and allocate the N to the corresponding participants. For this purpose, we are planning a SIP experiment (“stable isotope probing”), together with NGS metagenomics, real-time PCR and bioanalytics (acetylene reduction tests, mass spectrography).

In addition to intensive fruiting body mapping, spore collectors will also be installed to identify airflow-based distribution patterns and to compare which fungi are potentially present (species pool) and which are already established in the deadwood.


Doc
Genomsequenzierung von Truncatella angustata (Anamorph) S358
Kellner H., Friedrich S., Schmidtke K.-U., Ullrich R., Kiebist J., Zänder D., Hofrichter M., Scheibner K. (2022): Draft genome sequence of Truncatella angustata (Anamorph) S358. Microbiology Resource Announcements 11 (7), e00052-22. doi: 10.1128/mra.00052-22
More information:  doi.org
Doc
Entflechtung der Bedeutung von Raum und Wirtsbaum für die Beta-Diversität von Käfern, Pilzen und Bakterien: Lehren aus einem großen Totholzexperiment
Rieker D., Krah F.-S., Gossner M. M., Uhl B., Ambarli D., Baber K., Buscot F., Hofrichter M., Hoppe B., Kahl T., Kellner H., Moll J., Purahong W., Seibold S., Weisser W. W., Bässler C. (2022): Disentangling the importance of space and host tree for the beta-diversity of beetles, fungi, and bacteria: Lessons from a large dead-wood experiment. Conservation Biology 268, 109521. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109521
More information:  doi.org
Doc
Hofrichter M., Kellner H., Herzog R., Karich A., Kiebist J., Scheibner K., Ullrich R. (2022): Peroxide-Mediated Oxygenation of Organic Compounds by Fungal Peroxygenases. Antioxidants 11 (1), 163. doi: 10.3390/antiox11010163
More information:  doi.org
Doc
Moll J., Roy F., Bässler C., Heilmann-Clausen J., Hofrichter M., Kellner H., Krabel D., Schmidt J. H., Buscot F., Hoppe B. (2021): First evidence that nematode communities in deadwood are related to tree species identity and to co-occurring fungi and prokaryotes. Microorganisms 9 (7), 1454. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9071454
More information:  doi.org

Project in other funding periods

Picture: The photo shows a mushroom growing on a deadwood tree trunk lying in the forest
BLD-MFD-HZG III (Contributing project)
#Forest & Deadwood  #2020 – 2023  #Functional diversity […]

Scientific assistants

Prof. Dr. Claus Bässler
Project manager
Prof. Dr. Claus Bässler
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Prof. Dr. Francois Buscot
Project manager
Prof. Dr. Francois Buscot
Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ
Prof. Dr. Martin Hofrichter
Project manager
Prof. Dr. Martin Hofrichter
TU Dresden, Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau
Dr. Björn Hoppe
Project manager
Dr. Björn Hoppe
Julius Kühn-Institut
Dr. Harald Kellner
Project manager
Dr. Harald Kellner
TU Dresden, Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau
Dr. Julia Moll
Employee
Dr. Julia Moll
Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ
Sabrina Leonhardt
Employee
Sabrina Leonhardt
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